Cross talks between diabetes, obesity and nutrition in renal disease
Today we are facing a pandemic of Obesity and type 2 diabetes (Diabesity). Worldwide, more than 400 million people have T2DM and about 2 billion subjects are overweight or obese. Both diabetes and obesity are deeply interrelated. Obesity frequently precedes diabetes and many patients with diabetes are obese and have metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diabetes and obesity are two major risk factors for renal disease. Based on these premises, nutrition is a crucial topic today in clinical medicine and in nephrology. Weight reduction induced by specific diets proved to prevent the evolution towards diabetes. Moreover, Mediterranean diets prove to prevent cardiovascular disease. Preliminary studies observed in patients with obesity, diabetes and hyperfiltration, calorie restriction induced weight and GFR reduction. However, many points still need an answer. Which diet has to be recommended for the patients with renal disease and obesity or diabetes. Can we prevent chronic kidney disease in obesity by reducing weight? Which are the benefits of bariatric surgery in patients with extreme obesity and renal disease. Is there any additive effect of exercise and diet in renal disease prevention?.